Welcome to

    Discover More


       New Tech

       Traditional Tech

       Emerging Tech













FlowTime Clock ...
What flowtime is it?

Time displayed is Flowtime.

    Follow Us


New December 2020 Article: The Road to Clean Energy Winds Through Natural Gas

Get ready for the most comprehensive picture of the worldwide gas flow measurement market available to date!

We are putting the final touches on  the The World Market for Gas Flow Measurement, 4th Edition, Module A: Applications and Strategies for Gas Flow Measurement, and Module B: Gas Production, Consumption, and Flow Measurement in the Oil & Gas Industry, which examines the gas flow measurement market both worldwide and regionally. In these studies we cover all flow technologies used in the market so that  suppliers have the data they need to make informed decisions and achieve higher returns. 

Why the gas flow market is growing rapidly

Flow Research has been following the gas flow market regularly since the  first edition of our worldwide gas flow measurement study in 2004. Since then, gas market has market has evolved considerably -- and experienced extraordinary growth in the last decade. 

Like coal and petroleum, natural gas is a fossil fuel. Like air, natural gas is a mixture of gases, including methane, ethane, propane, butane, and other alkanes. Natural gas is found in the ground, along with petroleum. It is extracted and refined into fuels that supply a significant portion of the worldís energy supply. The world community has welcomed the seeming abundance of natural gas because it: 

  • Is available now to help meet energy needs around the world

  • Currently enjoys a favorable price point due to its surging supply

  • Can be delivered in a number of forms and through a variety of means, making it a highly versatile commodity and potentially lowering its distribution costs

  • Is considered a relatively clean alternative to crude oil and petroleum fuels Ė an important factor in a world becoming convinced of the need to implement environmental protections now

The natural gas revolution

Major new demands from China, India, and other developing economies have spurred the search for new sources of energy. At the same time, discoveries of new gas fields and production methods -- including new extraction technologies -- have boosted natural gas availability and increased the complexity of its management.

Natural gas production is still found primarily in traditional topside locations, but is increasingly found offshore and even in subsea locations that require an evolution of line sharing and pooling technologies. Most recently, gas production has begun to include the use of floating LNG ships.

Compressed natural gas (CNG) has taken on importance as a source of fuel for alternative energy vehicles. Vehicles powered by natural gas are highly efficient, and emit significantly lower amounts of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and pollutants harmful to the ozone layer than gasoline powered vehicles. CNG-powered vehicles are fueled at filling stations that are very much like gasoline stations, and several companies have created flowmeters specifically designed for these stations.

All of these changes are stretching the limits of gas flow measurement applications.

Great time to explore the gas flow market

We believe this is an optimal time to quantify the growth in the gas flow measurement market, and to take an in-depth look at its present and future prospects. Our user interviews show that current interest in natural gas flow measurement is at a high. In addition, opportunities are emerging in the measurement of other gases as well. 

The core study, Module A, and Module B each present different sets of data and views of the market. They are designed to be a complementary set to give you the best understanding of the whole market, but can also be purchased separately.

The Core Study:

  • Determines worldwide market size for gas flow measurement in 2019 for each technology used in this market and forecast market growth through 2024

  • Analyzes factors contributing to and limiting growth

  • Identifies market growth sectors

  • Provides average selling prices in this market worldwide and by region

  • Determines supplier market shares for the gas flow measurement market in 2019 worldwide and by technology type

  • Provides company profiles of the main suppliers of flowmeters used for gas flow measurement 

  • Analyzes the gas flow measurement products of the main suppliers in this market

Module A:

  • Reports on shipments worldwide for each flowmeter type by application

  • Defines and explains gas types and gas applications

  • Examines strengths, weaknesses and specific applications for each gas flowmeter type and provide strategies for competing in these markets

Module B:

  • Provides a world view of the oil & gas market from multiple perspectives and identify growth areas and growth factors

  • Examines the oil & gas industry flow measurement market by regions

  • Reports on shipments for flowmeters in the oil & gas industry for each region by flowmeter type and forecast growth rates

  • Provides data on each regionís natural gas production and consumption and forecast each regionís natural gas production and consumption

  • Discusses regional factors and political developments and how they may affect market forces in the near future

Note: We have been following very closely the balance of supply and demand in the oil markets in the first five months of 2020. On April 12, 2020, OPEC and the G20 nations agreed to a series of supply cuts extending into 2022. These cuts began on May 1, and are already having a positive effect on oil prices. However, demand for refined fuels has plummeted as people drive their cars less and airplane travel is dramatically reduced. These events also have an effect on the natural gas and gas flow measurement market. Our forecasts in these studies take these events into account. For a detailed account of the oil markets, including oil prices from 2011 to April 2020, see "Oil's Wild Ride, 4th Edition."  This Flow Research whitepaper is part of our Worldflow Monitoring Service. Go to www.worldflow.com for information on subscribing and a copy of "Oil's Wild Ride."

Gas flow measurement

Gas flow measurement can be divided into three broad categories: 

Industrial gas flow measurement includes flow measurement that occurs in manufacturing and process plants, including chemical plants and refineries. Meters used within a building or plant for internal allocation purposes of gas, water, or other liquids, are considered to be industrial meters. They are typically sold to the owners of the plant or building itself, as opposed to a utility company.

Note: Meters used to measure gas or water entering a building or plant for the purpose of billing the plant for their use of gas or water are considered to be utility meters. Typically they are sold to a gas or water utility company, which then installs them at a building or plant.

Commercial gas flow measurement occurs at businesses and commercial buildings such as restaurants, office buildings, and apartment complexes. This is a form of utility measurement, since these flowmeters typically measure the amount of natural gas used by the business or in the commercial building. 

Residential gas flow measurement refers to flowmeters that measure the amount of gas used at individual homes and apartments.

How flowmeters measure gas

Natural and other gases play an important role in the flowmeter industry, and applications include all but magnetic and open channel flowmeters.

Positive displacement (PD) flowmeters are widely used for utility measurements of gas flow. One main type is the diaphragm meter, in which several diaphragms that capture the fluid as it passes through the meter. Differential pressure across the meter causes one diaphragm to expand and one to contract. A rotating crank mechanism helps produce a smooth flow of gas through the meter. This mechanism is connected via gearing to the index, which registers the amount of fluid that passes through the meter.

Rotary PD meters trap a specific amount of fluid with each rotation of of a rotor.. Flowrate is proportional to the rotational velocity. Rotary meters are used for both liquid and gas industrial applications.

Turbine flowmeters have a rotor that spins in proportion to flowrate. There are many types of turbine meters, but many of those used for gas flow are called axial meters. Axial turbine meters have a rotor that revolves around the axis of flow. Axial meters differ according to the number of blades and the shape of the rotors. Like PD meters, turbine meters are used as a billing meter to measure the amount of gas used at commercial buildings and industrial plants.

Ultrasonic flowmeters use in measuring natural gas flow gained momentum following the publication of AGA-9 in June 1998. This report from the American Gas Association gives criteria for using ultrasonic flowmeters for custody transfer of natural gas. The AGA had previously issued reports on differential pressure (DP) flowmeters (AGA-3) and turbine flowmeters (AGA-7). (Since the publication of AGA-9, the AGA has also issued a report on the use of Coriolis flowmeters AGA-11.)

The use of ultrasonic flowmeters is continuing to grow, both for custody transfer and process gas measurement. Unlike PD and turbine meters, ultrasonic flowmeters do not have moving parts. And pressure drop is much reduced with an ultrasonic meter when compared to PD, turbine, and DP meters. Installation of ultrasonic meters is relatively straightforward, and maintenance requirements are low.

Ultrasonic flowmeters come as both inline and clamp-on configurations. Some have one ultrasonic beam, while those with higher accuracy use multiple beams. These are known as multipath ultrasonic flowmeters. Meters used for custody transfer purposes are inline multipath meters. Most of these custody transfer meters use four, five, or six paths, depending on manufacturer, to make a highly accurate measurement. Manufacturers include Instromet, Emerson Daniel, and FMC Measurement Solutions.

Differential pressure (DP) flowmeters consist of a differential pressure transmitter, together with a primary element. The primary element places a constriction in the flowstream, and the DP transmitter measures the difference in pressure upstream and downstream of the constriction. The transmitter or a flow computer then computes flow, using Bernoulliís theorem.

Types of primary elements include orifice plates, venturis, flow nozzles, pitot tubes, wedges, and others. Venturis are especially suited to high-speed flows. Orifice plates are still the most widely used type of primary elements. Their disadvantages are the amount of pressure drop caused, and the fact that they can be knocked out of position by impurities in the flowstream. Orifice plates are also subject to wear over time.

DP flowmeters are used to measure the flow of liquid, gas, and steam. Like ultrasonic and turbine meters, they are used for the custody transfer of natural gas. In many cases, end-users buy their pressure transmitters and primary elements from different suppliers. However, several vendors have integrated the pressure transmitter with the primary element to form a complete flowmeter. These have the advantage that they can be calibrated with the primary element and DP transmitter already in place.

Coriolis flowmeters are the most highly accurate meter. However, liquid flow measurement still predominates for Coriolis meters because gases are less dense than liquids, and the measurement is somewhat more difficult. A number of suppliers have brought out Coriolis meters for gas flow measurement, however, and this is a growing area for Coriolis. One application that Coriolis has come to excel in is in measuring compressed natural gas (CNG) for alternative fuel vehicles. Here they compete primarily with turbine flowmeters.

Thermal flowmeters are used almost exclusively to measure gas flow. Thermal flowmeters typically inject heat into the flowstream and then measure how quickly it dissipates. This value is proportional to mass flow. Two methods used are called constant current and constant temperature.

Thermal flowmeters grew out of the use of hot-wire anemometers for research applications. Early companies to develop thermal flowmeters include Sierra Instruments, Kurz Instruments, and Fluid Components International (FCI). Thermal flowmeters excel at measuring gas at low flowrates. Measuring low flows is a difficulty for some meters, including vortex, but this is where thermal flowmeters shine. Accuracy levels are improving for thermal flowmeters, as suppliers introduce product improvements.

One application where thermal flowmeters are widely used is in the measurement of stack flows. Gas flow has to be measured in smoke stacks to conform to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reporting requirements. Insertion thermal flowmeters are used to measure the flow of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and other industrial pollutants. Because of the large size of the stacks, insertion thermal meters that use multiple measuring points are used for these applications. Other flowmeters used for smoke stack applications are DP meters with averaging pitot tubes, and ultrasonic flowmeters.

Mass flow controllers (MFCs) not only measure flow; they also control it. They differ from thermal flowmeters in that most divert a small portion of the flow into a parallel channel, and then measure the flow through that parallel channel. The flowmeter then performs a calculation to determine mass flow through the entire flowmeter. Most also contain an integrated valve that is used to control flow. A setpoint is determined, usually by the user, and the valve is adjusted so that flow reaches that setpoint.

Most mass flow controllers use thermal methods to determine flowrate in the parallel flow path, though some use a differential pressure principle. And some mass flow controllers are sold without the valve, meaning they are functioning as flowmeters rather than controllers. Mass flow controllers are widely used in the semiconductor industry, but many have industrial applications. It is important for a mass flow controller to know what gas is being measured, in order to insure an accurate measurement. Mass flow controllers can also be used for to measure liquid flow.

Vortex flowmeters are one of the few types of meters, besides DP, that can accurately measure the flow of liquid, steam, and gas. However, vortex meters especially excel at measuring steam flow, since they can handle the high temperatures involved.

Variable area meters can measure the flow of both liquid and gas, and they also are used for a limited amount of steam flow measurement. Variable area meters rely on a float that rises in proportion to flowrate. They are primarily a low-cost alternative where a visual indication of flow is sufficient. While most still must be read visually, some variable area meters have been manufactured with transmitters.

Articles about gas flow

Past studies:
The World Market for Natural Gas and Gas Flow Measurement, 3rd Edition and Module C: The World Market for Custody Transfer of Natural Gas (2016)

The World Market for Gas Flow Measurement (2004)

For information on traditional flowmeter technologies, visit our series of sites at:

For information on new flowmeter technologies, visit our series of sites at:


Flow Research, Inc. | 27 Water Street | Wakefield, MA 01880 | (781) 245-3200 | (781) 224-7552 (fax) | (800) 245-1799 (from the USA) | info@flowresearch.com

Hit Counter